Causes of cervical cancer, preventive measures and management

Good health is durable wealth; so partner in your health affairs. Report your cervical cancer  status today and enjoy tomorrow. Worldwide, cervical cancer is second most common and the fifth deadliest cancer in women.  Cervical cancer can be successfully treated when it is detected early.

Cervical cancer is still a life-threatening disease which occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. In 2016, it was estimated that there were 476,000 cases of cervical cancer, and about half of these cases result to deaths per year, globally.   Cervical cancer is usually discovered at a very early stage through a Pap test.


Cervical cancer is mostly caused by a virus called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). There are many types of HPV. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can survive in human body undetected for many years, leading to cervical cancer years after. This is why it is important to have regular Pap tests. Although cervical cancer starts from cells, causing pre-cancerous changes (pre-cancer); only some of the women with pre-cancer of the cervix will develop cancer. The change from cervical pre-cancer to cervical cancer usually takes several years. However, it can happen in less than a year. For most women, pre-cancerous cells will disappear without any treatment. Still in some women, pre-cancer turns into true (invasive) cancer. Treating all pre-cancers can prevent almost all true cancers. When cervical cancer is detected early, it can be completely cured, with outcome of life-long survival and good quality of life.


Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can be contacted by having sex with someone who has it. Women who have many sexual partners (or who have sex with men who have had many other partners) are at a greater risk. However, all women are at the risk of cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women who are above 30 years of age. Infection with some types of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking and other viral infections. Women who have many children and use birth control pills for several years are at risk also. The trust of this article is that it will create adequate public awareness that will promote early detection and clinical management of cervical cancer.



Cervical cancer is the cancer that starts in the transformation zone of the lower end of the womb. It forms in tissues of the cervix (the organ connecting the uterus and vagina). It is usually a slow-growing cancer that may not have symptoms. Most cervical cancers begin in the cells lining the cervix. These cells do not suddenly change into cancer. Instead, the normal cells of the cervix first gradually develop pre-cancerous changes that may eventually turn into full cancer. Cervical cancers and cervical pre-cancers are classified by how they look under a microscope. There are two main types of cervical cancers: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.  More than 80% of cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the other cervical cancers are adenocarcinoma. Cervical adenocarcinoma seems to be more common in the past 20 years.


The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic. However, the common signs and symptoms are bleeding and moderate pain when something comes in contact with the cervix, such as during normal sexual intercourse. There is abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse or after menopause. Other signs and symptoms that may be observed are hard-to-stop vaginal discharge which may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody or foul-smelling; and periods that become heavier and last longer than usual.

Symptoms and signs of advanced cervical cancer may include metastases (cancer spread) to the liver, bladder, intestine, lungs or abdomen. Loss of appetite and weight are common occurrences. There may be fatigue, change in menstrual cycle that cannot be explained, bone fractures; and pain in the pelvic, back or legs. Other signs and symptoms are single swollen leg, heavy bleeding from the vagina and leakage of urine or feces from the vagina.


There are certain preventable predisposing factors in favour of cervical cancer attacks. Sex at an early age and multiple sexual partners especially a partner or many partners who are active in high-risk sexual activities should be avoided. It is very necessary to avoid smoking which increases chances of getting cervical cancer and taking birth control pills without expert medical supervision.


Do not ignore any of the symptoms and signs above.  Seek prompt medical attention and have regular pap tests and pelvic examinations that will properly guide treatment of any problem before it turns into cervical cancer. Follow up on abnormal Pap smear results with appropriate health care professionals for a timely medical intervention. If infected with cervical cancer, reduce the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Staying properly informed and sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help in the management of the psychological burden of cervical cancer. Consult your health care providers for the Human Papilloma Virus vaccine.

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